The funeral of police shooting victim Mark Duggan has taken place amid lingering tensions between family members and detectives.
Hundreds of mourners gathered in North London to pay their respects after a private cortege made its way through the Broadwater Farm estate in north London.
Mr Duggan's death in Tottenham on August 4, was the trigger for the first of four nights of riots that spread from the capital across England.
On the eve of the funeral, his brother Shaun Hall, 42, accused officers of presiding over a "shoot-to-kill policy", questioning why police had shot him in the chest rather than a non-lethal part of the body.
Tottenham MP David Lammy said that Mr Duggan's family was "left floundering" and the "lack of communication did not help".
Mother Pam Duggan, 53, who described her son as a "loving boy with a good heart", has organised a private church ceremony before a reception takes place at the Broadwater Farm Community Centre.
The ceremony comes after the Home Secretary urged politicians to refrain from rushing to judgment over the causes of the widespread violence.
Asked if the riots were prompted by the shooting of the 29-year-old, Theresa May told MPs: "I would be very cautious in saying that the shooting had the sort of direct link that we're talking about."
A police watchdog probe launched into the death of Mr Duggan, who was brought up close to the scene where Pc Keith Blakelock was killed during rioting in 1985, is expected to last up to six months.
A Scotland Yard spokesman said: "It is in the interest of everyone, the family of Mr Duggan, the public and the police, that the Independent Police Complaints Commission is able to establish all the facts of the events so that there is a complete understanding of what happened, and the MPS is doing everything possible to assist with that process."