Many schoolchildren believe the Battle of Britain is a TV talent show, and that the Tudors is a brand of crisps, according to the findings of a survey.
A poll of 1,000 eight to 13-year-olds reveals gaps in youngsters' historical knowledge and suggests many have a limited understanding of important events and characters.
Four in five of those questioned (80%) thought that the Battle of Britain was a British TV talent show, while just 5% knew that it was an air conflict between Britain and Germany fought during the Second World War.
Less than one in five (19%) correctly said that the Tudors were a historical royal family, with just under half (45%) identifying them as a brand of crisps. A further 27% said the Tudors are a group of people who help students in lessons.
The poll asked youngsters a series of historical questions and gave them a number of answers to choose from, including the correct one.
Asked 'who is Queen Victoria?', more than half (55%) said it was the pub in TV soap EastEnders, with just over a third (36%) identifying her as a British monarch.
More than a third (38%) thought Winston Churchill was the bulldog from a famous TV advert, although 61% did correctly say that he was prime minister during the Second World War.
The poll found that children are more likely to be up to date with current events. Some 92% knew that Queen Elizabeth II is the current monarch, while 96% said that Prince William and Catherine were the names of the royal couple who married this year.
The survey was conducted by the Daughters of History company to mark the launch of its new historical series of books and toys for girls.
Daughters of History creator Frances Cain said: "I was amazed to discover through our research how little children knew about their heritage - most of their awareness is driven by popular culture and the media."