Working mums striving to "have it all" now can add another perk to their list of benefits — health.
New research from University of Akron finds that mums who work full time are healthier at age 40 than those who stay at home or work part-time.
The study examined data from 2,540 women who became mothers between 1978 and 1995, revealing that the choices women make early in their professional careers can affect their health later in life.
Those who return full time to the workforce shortly after having children report better mental and physical health, such as greater mobility, more energy, less depression, etc. at age 40.
"Work is good for your health, both mentally and physically," says Assistant Sociology Professor at University of Akron, Adrianne Frech, who co-authored the study, in a statement. "It gives women a sense of purpose, self-efficacy, control and autonomy. They have a place where they are an expert on something, and they're paid a wage."
January Jones appears in character as Betty Francis (née Hofstadt, formerly Draper -- yes, that's how housewives roll) from the series 'Mad Men'. In the popular 60s-set drama, the Grace Kelly style blond princess brings new meaning to the phrase 'keeping up appearances'.
In this publicity image released by ABC, Eva Longoria (playing loyal wife Gabrielle Solis) is shown in a scene from the series finale of 'Desperate Housewives' making a final bid to save her husband from prison.
Actress Marcia Cross, who played icy cold and meticulous 'Desperate Housewife' Bree Van de Kamp arrives at the ALMA Awards in 2011.
Actress Florence Henderson embraced the housewife role in the long-running American series The Brady Bunch (pictured here attending 'TODAY' Show 60th anniversary celebration at The Edison Ballroom on January 12, 2012 in New York City)
As housewife Margo Leadbetter in Seventies sitcom The Good Life, actress Penelope Keith took great pains to ensure her domestic role played centre stage (much to husband Jerry's exhaustion).
Rather than fueling the "Mummy Wars" debate, which pits stay-at-home mums against working mums, Frech believes that a recently identified group — she calls this group "persistently unemployed" — deserves further attention, as they appear to be the least healthy at age 40. These women are in and out of the workforce, often not by choice, and experience the highs and lows of finding rewarding work only to lose it and start the cycle again.
According to Frech, working full time has myriad benefits, while part-time work offers lower pay, poor chances of promotion, less job security and fewer benefits. Mothers who stay at home may face financial dependence and greater social isolation. Persistent unemployment is a health risk for women, as stress from work instability can cause physical health problems.
"Women with interrupted employment face more job-related barriers than other women, or cumulative disadvantages over time," says Frech.
How To Be A Positive Parent
Tips on how to instill good behaviour in your child from an early age by using the 'positive discipline' approach, as advocated by the <a href="http://www.nspcc.org.uk/help-and-advice/for-parents-and-carers/positive-parenting/encouraging-better-behaviour/encouraging-better-behaviour_wda72886.html#positive_parenting_and_positive_discipline" target="_hplink"><strong>National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty for Children</strong></a> (<strong>NSPCC</strong>).
Show The Love
You can never spoil your child by showing them too much love. Boost their self-esteem by making them feel cherished, safe and special.
Have Clear Rules
Have clear simple rules and limits. Your child needs to know what the boundaries are, what is and is not acceptable. Keep it simple to avoid confusion and concentrate on behaviour that really matters.
Praise Good Behaviour
Praise good behaviour that you want to encourage and chances are, your child will repeat this as they know there's a reward at the end of it.
Ignore Bad Behaviour
If you ignore behaviour you don't like, it is less likely to be repeated by your child. Make it clear that you're open to communication when they are behaving, but not when they are being naughty or disruptive.
Avoid Direct Criticism
Rather than telling your child off for being bad, identify what they have done wrong and criticise the behaviour instead. Direct criticism can cause your child to go into their shell and become shy and withdrawn.
Show The Signs
Be as demonstrative as possible. Sweep her off her feet and praise her to when she's been a good girl. She'll remember how happy it makes her feel and make her want to be good again.
If it looks as though your child's behaviour is starting to deteriorate, step in before things go wrong. Redirect them to another activity to avoid conflict. Acknowledge your child's feelings by saying, 'I know you are cross" but make it clear that it doesn't go beyond that point.
Let Go of Control
Children need to learn about dealing with choices and decision-making. Don't impose your decisions on them all the time, let them have their say on little things and gradually increase this as they get older.
Never Be Threatening
Never use threats or physical behaviour, as this will only make the situation worse. Negotiate solutions when there is a disagreement and remember to communicate to help dissolve the problem. This way, your child will end up understanding what went wrong and why you are upset with them.
Set A Good Example
It's vital for parents to be positive role models for their child and practice what they preach. Actions speak louder than words. Let your child see that rules apply to everyone in the family, not just him or her.