When Lindsay Lohan entered the Betty Ford Center, as part of a court ordered rehabilitation programme, it was her second time as a visitor, and her sixth stint in rehab.

Yet, it is still not clear whether her 90-day course of support will go any way to solving her addiction problems.

The revolving door to high-profile rehab clinics would suggest that these residential support systems, which regularly treat celebrities individuals with drug and alcohol addiction problems, appear to fail as often as they succeed.

As Harry Shapiro, director of communications for Drugscope, explains: "In truth, there isn’t much clinical ‘gold standard’ evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of rehab when contrasted to other interventions."

While the idea of a rehab conveyor belt that can clean up 'dirty' addicts, and return them to the community good as new, is very attractive -- in reality, the effectiveness of residential rehab depends on a wealth of factors.

Meet former stars who have sought help at The Betty Ford Center

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  • Elizabeth Taylor

    Elizabeth Taylor <a href="http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0101/15/lkl.00.html" target="_blank">stayed at the Betty Ford Center in 1983 and 1988. </a> "It took me twice -- to go back to Betty Ford. The first time just didn't work it -- I thought I was strong enough and that I could socially drink. Then it became a bottle of wine at lunch, a bottle of wine at dinner," she told Larry King in 2001.

  • Keith Urban

    Keith Urban <a href="http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,20046393,00.html" target="_blank">stayed at the Betty Ford Center for 90 days in 2006. </a> "Not going in [to rehab] would have cost me my career at the very least, and my marriage would have been gone, anyway. That real cleansing and surrendering everything is what was really needed for me. I realized, 'This is the crossroads of my life. If I want a life, this is the time to take charge," he told People magazine in 2007.

  • Mary Tyler Moore

    Mary Tyler Moore stayed at the Betty Ford Center in 1984. "I went to the Betty Ford Center, and there are many such organizations now that can help people who are anesthetizing themselves. I think that's the closest I can explain what it was like for me. Life was too painful to deal with. And I felt that everybody else could deal with it all right, but I couldn't. There was something missing in me. So I was covering it with alcohol," <a href="http://archives.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0203/14/lkl.00.html" target="_blank">she told Larry King in 2002.</a>

  • Kelsey Grammer

    Kelsey Grammer checked into the Betty Ford Center in 1986, and <a href="http://cnsnews.com/news/article/home-betty-fords-rehab-center-absorbs-loss" target="_blank">10 years later he told Jay Leno</a>: "When I was on my way to the Betty Ford Center, I turned to one of my friends and said, 'You know, I've finally made it. I'm going to the Betty Ford Center."

  • Ozzy Osbourne

    Ozzy Osbourne sought <a href="http://www.monstersandcritics.com/people/news/article_1235377.php/Ozzy_Osbournes_rehab_shock" target="_blank">treatment at the Betty Ford Center in 1984. </a> "Sharon told me about a place where they teach you to drink properly. I said 'Oh, what's that -- the pub?' She told me it was called the Betty Ford Center," the rocker told Hello magazine in 2006. "And I thought, 'That's it! I've been doing it wrong." Summing up the experience, he noted, "all I know is I'm a very, very lucky man to still be alive and I appreciate that."

  • Stevie Nicks

    Fleetwood Mac singer Stevie Nicks <a href="http://marquee.blogs.cnn.com/2011/07/11/stevie-nicks-betty-ford-saved-my-life/" target="_blank">sought help from the Betty Ford Center in 1987 and 1993, </a>and when Ford passed away in 2011, she told CNN: "As far as I'm concerned, Betty Ford saved my life."

  • Robert Downey Jr.

    The actor checked in for a 67-day stay at <a href="http://www.people.com/people/gallery/0,,20509577_20986935,00.html#20986927" target="_blank">the Betty Ford Center in 1998 </a>after going to jail for violating probation on multiple drug charges.

  • Johnny Cash

    Johnny Cash stayed at the Betty Ford Center after he broke five ribs and relapsed into abuse of painkillers. "I ended up in the Betty Ford Center for 43 days," <a href="http://cnsnews.com/news/article/home-betty-fords-rehab-center-absorbs-loss" target="_blank">he told The Associated Press in 1986.</a> "I've had no drugs since then. It has been the best three years of my life, the most productive and the happiest."

  • Chevy Chase

    Chevy Chase<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1986/10/12/us/chevy-chase-being-treated-for-addiction-to-painkillers.html" target="_blank"> checked into the Betty Ford Center in 1986</a> for an addiction to painkillers. In an <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/06/opinion/06chase.html?_r=0" target="_blank">essay for the New York Times</a>, the actor wrote that "if it hadn't been for the courage of Mr. Ford's wife, Betty, for admitting to an alcohol problem, I would never have received the help I needed in the early 1980s at the Betty Ford clinic."

  • Marlee Matlin paid tribute to Betty Ford when Ford died, <a href="Oscar-winner Marlee Matlin paid tribute to the former first lady on Twitter: "She & Betty Ford Center helped me beat my addiction & she was an angel to many," Matlin wrote" target="_blank">writing on Twitter: </a> "She & Betty Ford Center helped me beat my addiction & she was an angel to many."

"If somebody does better in rehab than on other methods, there may be a host of reasons for this, which have little to do with the intervention itself. It could have more to do with the individual, their history and circumstances, which is impossible to account for in a research study."

A recent report by the National Treatment Agency (now part of Public Health England), completed in July 2012, points out that the popular notion of a spell in rehab, beloved of the tabloids, is not representative of mainstream treatment and recovery services provided in England.

“The best performers see more than 60% of their residents go on to overcome dependence, while the poorest struggle to enable 20% or fewer to overcome addiction," states the report.

"For every 10 people who go to rehab each year, three successfully overcome their dependency, one drops out, and six go on to further structured support in the community. Of those six, two overcome dependency with the help of a community provider, at least two are still in the system, and at least one drops out."

After rehab, Lohan will undergo 18 months of psychological therapy, according to NY Daily News.

Elspeth Henderson, head of communications (drugs and alcohol) for Public Health England, agrees that residential rehabilitation works best when it’s used in conjunction with treatment in the community.

“It needs to be part of package of support available to people everywhere in the county, depending on their individual needs.”

At present, there is a high relapse rate from rehab, but dropping out or returning to treatment should not necesarily be regarded as failure, suggests Shapiro.

"Addicts often have several goes at treatment generally (not just rehab). The evidence is that each time round they are likely to do better than the previous time. And the longer they stay, the better chance they have."

"Many people in this situation are trying not only to shrug off an addiction of many years standing, but also trying to deal with all the reasons why they became addicted in the first place. To imagine this can all be sorted by a few weeks in rehab is by and large unrealistic. "

Will Lindsay Lohan ever leave her rehab cycle?

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  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan at the "The Parent Trap" Los Angeles Premiere on July 2, 1998.

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends a private screening of 'Dinner with Friends' July 28, 2001 in Southhampton, New York. (Photo by George De Sota/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends the film premiere of 'Treasure Planet' at The Cinerama Dome on November 17, 2002 in Hollywood, California. The film opens nationwide on November 27, 2002. (Photo by Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends The 2003 Teen Choice Awards held at Universal Amphitheater on August 2, 2003 in Universal City, California. (Photo by Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends Macy's and Teen People's 'Freaky Friday' Mother/Daughter Fashion Show at Macy's Herald Square August 6, 2003 in New York City. Mothers and daughters were encouraged to switch styles in competition for prizes. (Photo by Matt Peyton/Getty Images for Disney)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives to the 2003 MTV Video Music Awards at Radio City Music Hall on August 28, 2003 in New York City. (Photo by Frank Micelotta/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan attends NBC's Access Hollywood Golden Globe Party, January 25, 2004 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Giulio Marcocchi/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan appears on stage during taping for MTV Spring Break 2004 on the beach deck at 'The City' March 12, 2004 in Cancun, Mexico. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the premiere of Paramount's 'Mean Girls' at the Cinerama Dome, on April 19, 2004 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Tina Fey and actress Lindsay Lohan hug at the after-party for Paramount's 'Mean Girls' at the Cinerama Dome Theater on April 19, 2004 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the T-Mobile Sidekick II Launch Party held at the Grove on August 4, 2004 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Frazer Harrison/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actor Wilmer Valderrama and actress Lindsay Lohan attends the '5th Annual Latin Grammy Awards' held at the Shrine Auditorium on September 1, 2004 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Frazer Harrison/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Singer Lindsay Lohan attends the MTV's Iced Out New Years Eve celebration on December 31, 2004 in New York City. (Photo by Peter Kramer/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the 7th Annual Young Hollywood Awards at the Music Box/Henry Fonda Theater on May 1, 2005 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Paris Hilton and actress Lindsay Lohan pose for pictures at the Evening with an Icon - Happy Birthday Marilyn Monroe auction at Meson G on June 1, 2005 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Michael Buckner/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives to the 2005 MTV Movie Awards at the Shrine Auditorium June 4, 2005 in Los Angeles, California. The 14th annual award show will premiere on MTV Thursday, June 9. (Photo By Frazer Harrison/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan poses for a photo backstage during MTV's Total Request Live at the MTV Times Square Studios June 22, 2005 in New York City. (Photo by Scott Gries/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Singer Lindsay Lohan makes an appearance at MTV's Total Request Live on November 11, 2005 in New York City. (Photo by Peter Kramer/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan walks the runway at The Heart Truth - Red Dress Fall 2006 fashion show at the 'Tent' during Olympus Fashion Week at Bryant Park in New York City. (Photo by Mark Mainz/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the Vanity Fair Oscar Party at Mortons on March 5, 2006 in West Hollywood, California. (Photo by Mark Mainz/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the Conde Nast Traveler hot list party April 18, 2006 in New York City. (Photo by Bryan Bedder/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends the after party for the 'A Prairie Home Companion' premiere at the Hudson Hotel June 4, 2006 in New York City. (Photo by Evan Agostini/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives during the sixth day of the 63rd Venice Film Festival on September 4, 2006 in Venice, Italy. (Photo by Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan and boyfriend Harry Morton arrive at the Hotel Luna Baglioni to attend a dinner party promoting 'Bobby' (work in progress) during the seventh day of the 63rd Venice Film Festival on September 5, 2006 in Venice, Italy. (Photo by Elisabetta Villa/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the premiere screening of Showtime's 'The Tudors' at the Egyptian Theatre on March 26, 2007 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Michael Buckner/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    DJ Samantha Ronson and actress Lindsay Lohan DJ at an event with Charlotte Ronson at Warehouse on April 12, 2007 in Tokyo, Japan. (Photo by Junko Kimura/Getty Images for Showroom Seven)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actor Lindsay Lohan attends the Us Hollywood 2007 Party at Sugar on April 26, 2007 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Stephen Shugerman/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    In this handout photo provided by the Santa Monica Police Department, Lindsay Lohan appears in a booking photo on July 24, 2007 in Santa Monica, California. Lohan, 21, was charged with drunken driving and cocaine possession and released on $25,000 dollars bail. (Photo by Santa Monica Police Department via Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    In this handout photo provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, actress Lindsay Lohan poses for a booking photo after being arrested on DUI charges at Lynwood jail on November 15, 2007 in Los Angeles, California. Lohan voluntarily reported to the facility to serve her minimum 24-hour jail sentence that was part of a plea bargain for two DUI charges. She checked out 84 minutes after booking. (Photo by Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department via Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the premiere of Paramount Picture's 'Cloverfield' at the Paramount Pictures Lot on January 16, 2008 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan poses during the Paper Magazine 'March Issue' luncheon held at the Sunset Marquis Hotel & Villas on March 4, 2008 in West Hollywood, California. (Photo by Michael Buckner/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Singer Lindsay Lohan arrives at the KIIS-FM's 2008 Wango Tango concert held at the Verizon Wireless Amphitheater on May 10, 2008 in Irvine, California. (Photo by Noel Vasquez/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan and DJ Samantha Ronson attend the Charlotte Ronson Spring 2009 fashion show during Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week at The Promenade in Bryant Park on September 6, 2008 in New York City. (Photo by Stephen Lovekin/Getty Images for IMG)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends a screening of 'Filth and Wisdom' hosted by The Cinema Society and Dolce and Gabbana at the IFC Center on October 13, 2008 in New York City. (Photo by Stephen Lovekin/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends the Matthew Williamson New York Store Opening during Mercedes-Benz Fall 2009 Fashion Week on February 15, 2009 in New York City. (Photo by Astrid Stawiarz/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the launch of A/X Watches at the SLS Hotel on April 15, 2009 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Michael Buckner/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan appears at the Wet Republic pool at the MGM Grand Hotel/Casino as she celebrates her birthday and her Sevin Nyne brand tanning mist June 27, 2009 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Lohan turns 23 on July 2. (Photo by Ethan Miller/Getty Images for Wet Republic)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends the Cinema Society and Hugo Boss screening of 'Inglourious Basterds' at the SVA Theater on August 17, 2009 in New York City. (Photo by Andrew H. Walker/Getty Images for The Weinstein Company)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan attends the 6126 Pop-Up Shop party at Revolve Flagship store on August 28, 2009 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Angela Weiss/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan attends the G Star Spring 2010 fashion show at Hammerstein Ballroom on September 15, 2009 in New York, New York. (Photo by Jason Kempin/Getty Images|)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan attends a photocall on the third and final day of the three day F1 Rocks Singapore concert at Fort Canning Park on September 26, 2009 in Singapore. (Photo by Alphonso Chan/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at Beverly Hills Municipal Court on October 16, 2009 in Beverly Hills, California. (Photo by Toby Canham/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at the InStyle and Warner Bros. 67th Annual Golden Globes after party held at the Oasis Courtyard at The Beverly Hilton Hotel on January 17, 2010 in Beverly Hills, California. (Photo by Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan attends the Viktor & Rolf Ready to Wear show as part of the Paris Womenswear Fashion Week Fall/Winter 2011 at Espace Ephemere Tuileries on March 6, 2010 in Paris, France. (Photo by Julien M. Hekimian/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan arrives at Star Magazine's Young Hollywood Issue launch party held at Voyeur on March 31, 2010 in West Hollywood, California. (Photo by Jason Merritt/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan arrives for a hearing to respond to allegations she has not completed a set number of alcohol education classes, at the Beverly Hills Courthouse on May 24, 2010. Lindsay Lohan who failed to appear for a court hearing in Los Angeles last week, prompted a judge to issue an arrest warrant that was later withdrawn when lawyers for the troubled actress posted bail. Lohan, 23, had been ordered to appear before Judge Marsha Revel to respond to allegations she has not completed a set number of alcohol education classes required under the terms of her probation. AFP PHOTO/Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan arrives at the 2010 MTV Movie Awards held at the Gibson Amphitheatre at Universal Studios on June 6, 2010 in Universal City, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan arrives for a probation violation hearing at the Beverly Hills Courthouse on July 6, 2010. Lohan, 24, was arrested in 2007 and placed on probation for driving under the influence. The judge scheduled the hearing after Lohan missed a court date in May and has been required to wear an ankle alcohol monitor since that time. LOhan faces up to 6 months in jail if she is found to have broken any condition of her probation. AFP PHOTO/Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Actress Lindsay Lohan (L) and lawyer Shawn Chapman Holley attend a probation revocation hearing at the Beverly Hills Courthouse on July 6, 2010 in Los Angeles, California. Lindsay Lohan was put on probation for her August 2007 no-contest plea to drug and alcohol charges stemming from two separate traffic accidents, but the probation was revoked in May 2010 after missing a scheduled hearing. (Photo by David McNew/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    Lindsay Lohan arrives to begin her 90 day jail sentence at the Beverly Hills Courthouse on July 20, 2010. Troubled Hollywood starlet Lindsay Lohan was a 'fidgety mess,' a magazine said just hours before she was due to be locked up for 90 days for parole violations in her 2007 drunk driving conviction. Lohan, 24, broke down in tears July 6 when the judge ordered her placed behind bars, but it is unlikely she will serve out her full sentence in a Los Angeles detention facility due to her nonviolent crime and similar preceding cases of Hollywood stars who served a mere fraction of their time. AFP PHOTO/Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)

  • Lindsay Lohan

    In this booking photo provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, Lindsay Lohan is seen at the Lynwood Correctional Facility on July 20, 2010 in Lynwood, California. Lohan received a 90-day jail sentence for the August 2007 no-contest plea to drug and alcohol charges. (Photo by Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department via Getty Images)

In England, there’s no such thing as a mandatory requirement to undergo rehabilitation, according to Henderson. Yet courts may encourage individuals to voluntary take part in treatment, as part of their sentencing.

However, according to HuffPost UK blogger and founder of Charter Day Care, a residential and counselling treatment facility Mandy Saligari, about a third of those entering state funded treatment services in the UK are motivated by the legal system.

"This could be a drug rehabilitation requirement of their sentence, or similar," explains the addiction therapist.

"As so many people enter rehab involuntarily with their backs up against a wall, it is not unusual for someone not to be there ‘for the right reasons’."

Unless treatment is holistic, lengthy and fully tackles the context that prompts addictive behaviour -- rather than focusing on abstinence -- a relapse mentality can become easier to adopt, suggests Saligari.

"The more you relapse the more you think you can live in relapse; you will seek out a relationship or community to enable you and this is how you will live.

"It is a feature of addiction that the addict doesn’t finish. Provide a standard and the addict will do just enough to get by.

If you set the bar that relapse or ‘controlled using’ is acceptable, then that is what they will do. Sad as most drug addicts seeking help want abstinence."

Are you familiar with these famous stories of excess?

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  • Robert Downey Jr.

    After years of struggling with cocaine and heroin addiction and serving jail time, the actor is clean and sober.

  • Amy Winehouse

    Singer Amy Winehouse was found dead in her London home on July 23, 2011. The 27-year-old singer's life was cut short due to accidental alcohol poisoning. <em>CORRECTION: In an earlier version of this slideshow, the date Ms. Winehouse died was incorrect. She died on July 23, 2011.</em>

  • Lindsay Lohan

    The 25-year-old actress has spent the last five years in and out of rehab and still stuggles to stay sober today.

  • Charlie Sheen

    In February 2011 Charlie Sheen claimed he was clean of drugs and alcohol, but high on himself. The actor has publicity struggled with addiction for years, but many doubt his claims of sobriety.

  • Drew Barrymore

    Drew was famously an addict as a child. By her own admission she said she had her first drink at 9, began smoking marijuana at 10 and began using cocaine at 12. By age 13 she entered rehab and has maintained her sobriety since.

  • Robin Williams

    The comedian overcame a cocaine addiction, but headed back to rehab after 20 years of sobriety in 2006 to address his issues with alcohol.

  • Fergie

    The Black Eyed Peas singer kicked a crystal meth and ecstasy habit.

  • Heath Ledger

    An accidental overdose of prescription medication killed the actor on Jan. 22, 2008.

    Rehab England Facts

  • There are around 100 rehabs in England that are regularly commissioned by public authorities, and over 4,000 users who were in treatment during 2010-11 accessed them as part of their treatment pathway. Yet this is only a fraction of the overall picture of drug treatment in England.
  • The average time spent in residential rehab is 13 weeks.
  • Residential rehab currently accounts for 2% of people in adult drug treatment but 10% of central funding. On average a period in rehab costs £600 a week, making it much more expensive than non-residential treatment services.
  • In 2010-11, commissioners planned to spend about £42m on residential rehab.
  • Rehabs are more successful at retaining and treating residents with severe alcohol dependency than drug addicts – possibly because dependent drinkers have more personal and social capital to invest in recovery.

For more information about help with drug addiction, please contact the Frank helpline and for advice on alcohol dependence, visit Drink Aware.