Earlier this year, the Alzheimer's Society revealed that nearly 50% of people are too scared to tell their loved ones that they are worried they may have dementia.
The Money Carer Foundation added it "suggests that this could leave around half a million people struggling with their symptoms in silence rather than seeking support from family and friends."
So, what is Alzheimer's? It's a dementia, which is a collection of symptoms connected to the decline in the way your brain functions, affecting memory and the way you behave. Aside from Alzheimer's, you may have also heard of vascular dementia or DLB (dementia with Lewy's bodies).
HuffPost UK Lifestyle asked Anchor’s award winning dementia consultant Victoria Metcalfe to explain how it works.
What is it and what causes it?
"Alzheimer’s causes the chemistry and structure of the brain to change," she says, "leading to the death of brain cells. Vascular dementia is caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain (often following a stroke), and DLB is caused by structures developing inside nerve cells in the brain, leading to the degeneration of brain tissue. These other forms of dementia are also characterised by different symptoms.
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That doesn't mean you should pour out a bag of Skittles at each meal. Try to eat foods of a variety of natural colors to gain antioxidants, said Dr. Amen.
Just because something is a fruit, doesn't mean you should chow down on it, according to Dr. Daniel Amen, author of "Use Your Brain To Change Your Age." For brain health, Dr. Amen recommends food with a low glycemic index -- which measures how quickly food increases blood sugar -- and a lot of fiber, which benefits your intestinal tract. Certain fruit like pineapple and watermelon have high glycemic indexes and should be avoided, advises Dr. Amen. Instead, incorporate fruits like blueberries, apples, oranges, cherries, kiwi, strawberries and raspberries. When it comes to fiber, consider adding coconut to your diet. Correction: In a previous version of this slide, "blood pressure" was incorrectly inserted where "blood sugar" is.
Don't eliminate all of the fat in your diet. Instead, focus on incorporating good fats. In fact, if your cholesterol drops too low, you may be at greater risk for depression, according to Amen and several studies on low cholesterol. So what exactly are "good fats"? Dr. Amen advises people to eat foods rich in omega-3s to promote brain health, including almonds, walnuts, brazil nuts, fish, lamb, avocados and green leafy vegetables. Another added benefit of eating good fats? "Your vitamins are actually absorbed better when you eat them with a little bit of fat," said Dr. Amen.
While you generally want to avoid bad fats, if you choose to eat steak, "you want to go with grass-fed, hormone-free, free-range meats" rather than grain-fed meats, said Dr. Amen. "When you feed the animals the high-glycemic foods, they actually produce less of the good fat and more of the bad fat. So they're not as good for you." In other words, what your food eats affects your health too, according to Dr. Amen. Photo courtesy of mdid
Next time you're whipping up some grub, turn to your spice rack for an extra brain boost. Spices and herbs may do more for your health than you realize. According to Dr. Amen, cinnamon balances blood sugar; garlic, oregano and rosemary increase blood flow to the brain; curry acts as an anti-inflammatory; and saffron can have anti-depressant effects. Photo courtesy of S. Diddy
Next time you're craving a cold glass of juice with your breakfast, think again. "Juice is sugar that is unwrapped from its fiber source, and whenever you unwrap sugar from its fiber source, it can turn toxic in your body," said Dr. Amen. Photo courtesy of Leonid Mamchenkov
You may be dreaming about that delicious breakfast muffin all night, but you should probably steer clear of the breakfast pastries. "There's way too much bad fat and sugar," said Dr. Amen. Instead, he recommends a protein-heavy breakfast like a few boiled eggs, nuts and an apple. While Dr. Amen suggests eating lean protein at each meal, he believes it is "especially important in the morning because it helps you focus," he said. Photo courtesy of Nicola since 1972
The last thing you need when you're trying to eat healthy are friends who try to coerce you to be unhealthy. "You have to deal with the food pushers in your life because they'll steal your health," said Dr. Amen. "The health of the people you spend time with will often determine your longevity." Make sure your friends understand and support your decision to eat healthier, and try to find other people who who are on the same healthy path as you.
Although scientists aren't quite sure what causes it - it may be a combination of age, genetics and lifestyle choices - people with Alzheimer's also have a shortage of some important chemicals in their brain. Alzheimer's Society says: "These chemicals are involved with the transmission of messages within the brain. Alzheimer's is a progressive disease, which means that gradually, over time, more parts of the brain are damaged."
What are the symptoms?
“In Alzheimer’s, short-term memory problems are usually the first noticeable sign," says Victoria. "People in the early stages of Alzheimer's may also experience lapses of memory loss and have problems finding the right words. It is important for loved ones to be aware that someone with Alzheimer’s may also:
- Become confused and frequently forget names, places, appointments and recent events
- Experience mood swings, feel sad or angry or scared and frustrated by their increasing memory loss
- Become more withdrawn, due either to a loss of confidence or communication problems
- Have difficulty carrying out everyday activities - they may get muddled checking their change at the shops or become unsure how to work familiar items such as the television.
"People with Alzheimer's will need more support from those who care for them and eventually they will need help with all their daily activities."
Molecular ribbon representation of the beta-amyloid peptide found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients.
What age group does it affect?
"Dementia affects one in 14 people over the age of 65," says the Alzheimer's Society, "and one in six over the age of 80. However, dementia is not restricted to older people: in the UK, there are over 17,000 people under the age of 65 with dementia, although this figure is likely to be an underestimate."
What do I do if I am worried I have dementia?
Firstly, if your main concern is memory loss, be aware that it may be due to another underlying condition rather than dementia. Lucy Harmer, head of services at Age UK says: "There are lots of causes for memory loss form stress to depression, vitamin deficiencies to urinary tract infections. People think: "Oh my god, my memory loss has gotten worse," it must be dementia, but it may not be.
If you are in doubt, see your GP who may be able to refer you to a specialist for further tests. If you have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's, says the NHS, "a plan will be drawn up by healthcare professionals, such as your GP or psychiatrist social care services, which is normally your local council working in conjunction with the NHS."
Is there anything I can do to prevent it?
Unlike cardiovascular diseases, there is no direct cause of Alzheimer's.
Alzheimer's Research UK is looking into risk factors beyond a disease that strikes in old age. They say: "Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (like heart disease and stroke) are also risk factors for all dementia. So it’s a good idea to keep healthy by exercising regularly, not smoking, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, controlling high blood pressure, reducing your cholesterol level and only drinking alcohol within the recommended limits and eating a balanced diet."