Scientists are working on a new kind of pill loaded with microscopic drug capsules that can safely pass through the intestinal wall.
Early tests have already shown how one oral nanoparticle containing insulin can reduce blood sugar levels in mice.
Currently, diabetics lacking the hormone have to self-inject it, sometimes several times a day.
The development of an insulin pill would transform the management of Type 1 diabetes.
Future nanoparticle pills may also be used to deliver drugs across other natural barriers surrounding the brain, lungs and placenta.
"Being able to deliver nanomedicine orally would offer clinicians broad and novel ways to treat today's many chronic diseases that require daily therapy, such as diabetes and cancer," said Professor Robert Langer, a member of the research team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, US.
"Imagine being able to take RNA or proteins orally; that would be paradigm shift."
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AXA’s research found that 79% of people were able to correctly identify breast lumps as a potential indicator of cancer. But a lump or swelling in any part of the body, including the armpit, neck, abdomen, groin or chest area, is worth having checked by a doctor.
Diarrhoea or changes in bowel habits are most likely to be caused by a stomach bug or eating something that disagrees with you. But if you’re noticing changes that have lasted more than a few days, for example if your bowel movements are looser for three weeks or more, or you notice any blood when you’ve been to the toilet, then make an appointment to get it checked out.
A lot of people get mouth ulcers when their immune system is low or they’re stressed. Generally they’re nothing to worry about and, as the lining of the mouth regenerates itself every couple of weeks, shouldn’t last long. But any ulcer that hasn’t healed after three weeks merits attention from your doctor or dentist. The same goes for any sore or spot that lasts for several weeks without healing – get it checked by a doctor.
Many men find it more difficult to pass urine as they get older, needing to go more often or urgently or being unable to go when they need to. These problems are usually caused by an enlarged prostate, which is a common condition that is not in itself cause for concern. But occasionally these symptoms can be a sign of prostate cancer – either way, men experiencing these symptoms should see their GP. Similarly, while urinary tract infections are the most likely cause of women having pain or difficulty passing urine, this should pass relatively quickly. If it doesn’t, then any sudden urges to pass urine or the need to go more often should be discussed with your doctor.
It’s natural for most people’s weight to fluctuate over time. But if you haven’t instigated any changes in your diet or exercise regime and have obviously lost weight, then talk to your doctor. And if you’re experiencing heavy night sweats you should seek medical advice – these don’t always have a sinister cause, and can be brought about by certain infections or medications, but they’re worth checking.
If you’ve coughed up any blood, you should see your doctor, regardless of the amount of blood or frequency. It can be a sign of lung cancer, so needs to be checked out.
Most of us will experience coughs or croaky voices at some point, normally when we’ve had a cold. But as with many other changes to your body, anything that hasn’t gone away after three weeks or so should be investigated.
AXA’s research found women were more likely than men to identify key cancer warning signs, including breast lumps, changes in bowel habits and irregular moles. But for both men and women, ensuring you’re aware of symptoms to keep an eye out for is important. Knowledge is power: understanding what you’re looking for means you can any changes checked out quickly.
AXA’s research found only 6% of men and 3% of women check their bodies daily for anything unusual. But understanding what’s normal for your own body is essential if you’re to spot when anything has changed. If you do notice changes that are persisting for a long time, or causing you pain and discomfort, then see your GP.
A sizeable 61% of people AXA spoke to admitted they’d delayed seeing their doctor when they spotted changes that could be potential flags for cancer. But early detection of any problems can make a huge difference if any treatment is then needed. Similarly, if changes are harmless your doctor will be able to reassure you. Overall, the sooner you go to see your GP, the better.
Nanoparticles are being actively explored by numerous research groups as "smart" drug delivery systems that could be designed to target specific cells, or time the release of medicines.
Typically they consist of tiny spheres of synthetic material holding the desired medication within a hollow core, or dispersed throughout the particle body, or attached to its surface. By definition, a nanoparticle is an object up to a millionth of a millimetre across.
Until now, nanoparticles have only been considered as injectible treatments because of their inability to penetrate the cellular barrier lining the gut.
Scientists solved the problem by mimicking the way babies absorb antibodies from their mothers' milk to boost their immune systems.
The antibodies attach onto "receptor" molecules on the intestinal wall cell surface that act like gates, allowing access to adjacent blood vessels.
Taking a cue from nature, the researchers decorated their nanoparticles with proteins that the target the same receptors. Once the protein unlocks the receptor gate, the whole nanoparticle and its payload is allowed through.
"The novelty of actively being able to transport targeted nanoparticles across cell barriers can potentially open up a whole new set of opportunities in nanomedicine," said study leader Dr Omid Farokhzad, director of the Brigham and Women's Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials in Boston.
"The body has receptors that are involved in shuttling proteins across barriers, as is the case in the placenta between the mother and foetus, or in the intestine, or between the blood and the brain. By hitching a ride from these transporters, the nanoparticles can enter various impermeable tissues."
The mouse experiments showed that nanoparticles administered by mouth could deliver enough insulin to lower the animals' blood sugar levels.
Theoretically, the same technique could be used to deliver a vast array of drugs to treat many different diseases, said the researchers whose findings appear in the journal Science Transitional Medicine.
They are now working to enhance the nanoparticles' drug-releasing abilities and prepare for more laboratory tests with insulin and other drugs. There are also plans to design nanoparticles capable of crossing other barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier that prevents many kinds of drug from entering the brain.
"If you can penetrate the mucosa in the intestine, maybe next you can penetrate the mucosa in the lungs, maybe the blood-brain barrier, maybe the placental barrier," said Dr Farokhzad.
Patients are much more likely to stick to a treatment regime that involves pills rather than injections, the scientists point out.
"If you were a patient and you had a choice, there's just no question: patients would always prefer drugs they can take orally," Prof Langer added.
Several types of nanoparticle carrying chemotherapy drugs or "interfering" RNA molecules that switch off selected genes are now in clinical trials to investigate their potential for treating cancer and other diseases.
They exploit the fact that tumours and other diseased tissues are surrounded by leaky blood vessels. After being intravenously injected, the particles pass through the leaky vessels and release their drug cargoes.
Previous attempts have been made to force nanoparticles through the gut wall by temporarily disrupting the so-called "tight junctions" that seal together intestinal lining cells. But this runs the risk of also allowing access to unwanted intruders, such as bacteria.