A "flying jellyfish" machine that swims through the air has been developed by scientists who believe it offers an alternative strategy for getting off the ground.

The device has "wings" that push downwards rather than flap, mimicking the pulsing movements of a swimming jellyfish.

The machine may lend itself to the development of small unmanned drones for reconnaissance and rescue missions, or monitoring traffic and air pollution.

Previous attempts to design a mini-flying machine have focused on the flight of insects such as dragonflies.

But the wing-flapping motion of insects suffers from a major problem that presents a challenge to human engineers - it is inherently unstable.

Insect-like drones end up being over-complex, requiring active control systems or high-drag tails and sails to stabilise them.

In contrast, the flying jellyfish is intrinsically able to keep upright and recover from disturbances during hovering and other manoeuvres.

The four-winged prototype tested by the scientists is four inches long, weighs 0.07oz, and is controlled by wire from the ground.

Writing in the Journal Of The Royal Society Interface, the team, led by Dr Leif Ristroph from New York University, concluded: "These results show the promise of flapping flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals."

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  • Boeing

    Boeing has its hands in a lot of drone technology. In June, the company successfully completed a test flight of one of its drones that is meant to stay airborne for days,<a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-205_162-57447147/boeing-successfully-tests-phantom-eye-a-long-flying-drone/"> according to CBS News</a>. Boeing, headed by CEO Jim McNerney, Jr., estimated that it took<a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/24/boeing-results-idUSL1E8LO1V320121024"> home $80.5 billion in revenue</a> last year, according Reuters. <strong>CORRECTION:</strong> An earlier version of this slide incorrectly stated that a Boeing drone flew from Maryland to California. The drone actually flew around an Air Force base in California.

  • General Atomics

    General Atomics, a defense contractor based in Southern California, is set to sell $197 million worth of drones to the United Arab Emirates, <a href="http://articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/22/business/la-fi-predator-drone-sale-20130223">according to the Los Angeles Times</a>. If the deal goes through, it would be the first such sale to a non-NATO country. General Atomics, run by CEO J. Neal Blue, <a href="http://qz.com/60456/activist-investors-target-bigger-companies/">took home $652,129,000 in 2012</a>, according to Washington Technology,

  • Lockheed Martin

    Lockheed Martin <a href="http://www.engadget.com/2012/07/16/lockheed-martin-stalker-drone-stays-airborne-48-hours-via-lasers/">completed tests in July of a "Stalker"</a> drone that stays airborne for 48 hours, according to Endgadget. The<a href="http://dissenter.firedoglake.com/2013/02/04/pbs-ombudsman-drones-program-wouldve-been-better-without-lockheed-martin-support/"> company came under fire</a> after sponsoring a documentary on PBS about drones. Lockheed Martin, headed by CEO Marillyn Hewson, took home <a href="http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/press-releases/2013/january/0124hq-earnings.html">$47.2 billion in 2012</a>.

  • Northrop Grumman

    Northrop Grumman is helping to expand the drone business to the Asia-Pacific region. Late last year, the company sold <a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-12-24/south-korea-to-buy-1-2-billion-in-drones-under-u-s-plan.html">$1.2 billion worth of drones</a> to South Korea, according to Bloomberg. Northrop Grumman's profits <a href="http://articles.latimes.com/2012/feb/01/business/la-fi-northrop-earns-20120201">rose</a> 80 percent in the fourth quarter of last year. The company is headed by CEO Wes Bush.

  • AeroVironment

    AeroVironment is <a href="http://www.aolnews.com/2011/02/18/pentagons-tiny-new-spy-drone-mimics-hummingbird/">developing</a> the "Hummingbird drone" for the Pentagon, according to Aol News. But don't let its cute name fool you; the device can hover and perch to watch your every move and aims to someday bolster surveillance capabilities in urban areas, <a href="http://www.delawareonline.com/article/20130228/BUSINESS08/302280059/Solyndra-critics-back-U-S-energy-lab-seeking-biofuel-from-germs">according to Delaware online</a>. Despite the scary yet innovative technology, AeroVironment, which is run by CEO Timothy Conver, is projecting its revenue to drop to <a href="http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2013/03/06/aerovironment-drone-makers-shares-hit-the-wall-on-q3-miss/">$230 million in the upcoming fiscal year</a>, according to Forbes.

  • Prox Dynamics AS

    This Norway-based company, <a href="http://www.proxdynamics.com/about/">founded by Petter Muran</a> in December 2007, developed the Black Hornet Nano, a mini-handheld helicopter that helps soldiers survey an area swiftly by flying at <a href="http://www.gizmag.com/black-hornet-nano-uav/26118/">top speeds for up to 30 minutes</a>, according to Gizmag. The UK gave<a href="http://seattletimes.com/html/businesstechnology/2020283205_apeubritainhandheldhelicopter.html"> some soldiers the Black Hornet Nanos</a> to use in Afghanistan earlier this month, according to the Associated Press. The Hornet was part of a $31 million contract.

  • Denel Dynamics

    Denel Dynamics, which is part of South Africa's biggest maker of defense equipment, has seen its sales <a href="http://www.moneynews.com/Companies/Drone-Makers-Arab-Demand/2013/02/18/id/490847">boom 20 percent </a>in the last four years, according to Money News. Sello Ntsihlele, the company's executive manager for drone technology, called the current climate "the best time" for drones, because demand is increasing in the Middle East, East Asia and Africa. Denel Dyanmics Missiles <a href="http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=27077:denel-dynamics-missiles-earnings-up-for-2012&catid=7:Industry&Itemid=116">took home $68,228,037 </a>in 2012, which was down from 2011. Executives argued that Denel has historically posted losses because of onerous contracts.

  • SAIC

    This company is helping the Pentagon develop underwater drones to defend against ultra-quiet submarines, according to Money Morning. SAIC, who is run by Chairman John Jumper, took home <a href="http://investors.saic.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=193857&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1764779&highlight=">$2.87 billion in revenue</a> during the third quarter of last year, up 3 percent from the year before. (Pictured: An Iranian submarine)

  • Israeli Aerospace Industries

    Israeli Aerospace Industries <a href="http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gY48uh_MTGsQz1lDhtj4a92ggOZw?docId=CNG.f93648e502555ea3e976efe113d96c98.1b1">pioneered the technology used for drones</a> in the 1970s, according to Agence France Presse. Tommy Silberring, the head of the company's drone division, said increased demand around the world is boosting the drone market, as more countries want to go to war without putting their soldiers at risk. The drone sector is poised to become an $11.3 billion industry over the next decade, according to the Teal Group.

  • Textron

    The military's appetite for drones helped Textron's defense business score a<a href="http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/blog/mass-high-tech/2009/11/struggling-textron-finds-success-with-drone.html?page=all"> year-over-year revenue jump of $61 million</a>, according to Mass High Tech, even as the rest of its business struggled. The drones have been so successful that the company, run by CEO Ellen Lord, is developing technology for unmanned underwater vehicles like the one pictured, according to the AP. <strong>CORRECTION:</strong> An earlier version of this post misidentified the CEO of Textron Systems. Ellen Lord is the company's CEO.

  • General Dynamics

    General Dynamics is one of the major donors to the Congressional Unmanned Systems Caucus (unofficially known as the drone caucus), <a href="http://www.kpbs.org/news/2012/jul/05/drone-makers-friends-washington/">according to KPBS</a>. Yes, that really does exist. The company, run by CEO Jay Johnson, reported a $2 billion loss in January, citing defense spending cuts, <a href="http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-01-23/business/36507001_1_federal-budget-cuts-general-dynamics-largest-federal-contractors">according to the Washington Post</a>.

  • DJI

    Hong Kong-based DJI's Phantom, used by filmmakers to take steady aerial shots, is one of the most complete drones on the market, according to Quartz. DJI's North America CEO Colin Guinn, as well as others in the drone industry, are putting resources into products like the Phantom, betting that the <a href="http://qz.com/46893/the-private-drone-industry-is-like-apple-in-1984/">FAA will approve drones</a> for commercial use in 2015.