Edward Snowden has sent Oxford University students a video message, warning government secrets are undermining Western democracy.
The footage was recorded for students attending the Sam Adams award ceremony for Chelsea Manning, the American soldier who has been jailed for 35 years for handing over state secrets to WikiLeaks. The former soldier was honoured for "integrity in intelligence".
Snowden was recently elected as Glasgow University's rector, defeating former champion cyclist Graeme Obree, author Alan Bissett and the Rev Kelvin Holdsworth.
Snowden became a wanted man when his leaks brought to light secret National Security Agency documents which revealed widespread US surveillance of phone and internet communications.
He is staying in Russia where he has been given temporary asylum.