Five men have been charged by police investigating child sexual exploitation offences against girls stretching back 16 years.
More than 100 officers took part in synchronised dawn raids at eight properties across Oxford on Tuesday, Thames Valley Police said.
Police are investigating 60 offences in connection with the operation, codenamed Sabaton, on female victims in the city dating from 1999 to 2007.
Nine men - two aged 36 and others aged 29, 31, 33, 34, 37, 44 and 45 - were detained during the raids and four of them were freed on police bail until next month.
Five have been charged with various offences.
Assad Hussain, 34, of no fixed address, is charged with six counts of indecent assault and six counts of rape, and Qasim Hussain, 29, of Hurst Street, Oxford, is accused of one count of rape.
Naim Khan, 36, of Herschel Crescent, Oxford, has been charged with two counts of indecent assault, one of rape, one of supplying cocaine, one of supplying heroin, one of sexual touching and one of making an indecent film of a child.
In addition, Allah Ditta Yousaf, 45, of Bodley Road, Oxford, is charged with four counts of indecent assault and Owais Khan, 31, of Belvedere Road, Oxford, has been charged with one count of indecent assault, and five counts of rape.
All men, apart from Hussain, will appear at Oxford Magistrates' Court today.