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In a Downing Street press conference, the prime minister set out a new timetable for the lifting of restrictions, provided the virus is under control.
Over the course of the next four months, Johnson said the government would look to allow more close contact between friends and family when it can.
In England, from Friday, Johnson said he wanted to be “clear” anyone may use public transport.
The PM said he still wanted to encourage people to consider alternative means of transport where they are available.
Local authorities will have new powers to close specific premises, shut public outdoor spaces, and cancel events.
Central government will also soon have the power to close whole sectors or types of premises in a local area.
Ministers will be able to introduce local “stay at home” orders, to prevent people entering or leaving defined areas, reduce the maximum size of gatherings beyond national rules, or restrict transport systems serving local areas.
The move towards local restrictions is so the government can avoid imposing a second national lockdown.
The government previously announced the reopening of indoor gyms, pools and other sports facilities.
The government will scrap its blanket advice that people work from home when they can.
Instead employers will be given more discretion to make decisions about whether employees should return to offices.
Most remaining leisure settings, including bowling, skating rinks and casinos will be allowed to reopen.
Close contact services such as beauticians will also be allowed resume.
But nightclubs and soft play areas will remain shut.
Indoor performances to a live audience, such as theatre, will be reopened.
The government will also pilot larger gatherings in venues like sports stadiums, with a view to wider reopening in the autumn.
Wedding receptions for up to 30 people will be permitted.
Schools, nurseries and colleges will be open for all children and young people on a full-time basis, as previously announced.
Johnson said he intended to bring back audiences in stadiums and to allow conferences and other business events to recommence.
The PM said in November, at the earliest, the government could lift social distancing measures and scrap the one metre rule.