The condition, sometimes referred to as “scarlatina”, is a bacterial infection that most commonly affects children between the ages of two and eight.
“Although we have seen a small increase in cases this year, scarlet fever is usually a mild illness that can be treated with antibiotics to reduce the risk of further complications and to minimise the risk of its spread to others.”
Scarlet fever is caused by the group A strain of the streptococcus bacteria. The infection enters the body through the throat, which is where symptoms begin.
Most cases (about 80%) of scarlet fever occur in children under 10, however, people of any age can get the illness.
NHS Choices states that generally, scarlet fever is much less common than it used to be, but in recent years there have been a number of significant outbreaks.
PHE stated that between September 2016 and January 2017, 3,325 scarlet fever reports have been made across England (adults and children).
On average, around 300 to 400 cases of scarlet fever are reported to PHE each week across England, with weekly activity this season being “similar or slightly above” the figures last year.
Levels of scarlet fever are typically low during the autumn and early winter, and reach the highest levels in March and April.
Signs and symptoms of scarlet fever
“Scarlet fever’s main symptoms include a sore throat, headache and fever with a characteristic sandpapery, fine, pinkish or red rash,” the PHE spokesperson told HuffPost UK.
NHS Choices atates a high temperature (38.3C/101F or above), flushed cheeks and a swollen tongue can also be signs of the fever.
A rash is likely to appear one or two days later than the sore throat and headache. It usually occurs on the chest and stomach before spreading to other areas of the body, such as the ears and neck.
“The rash may be itchy,” the website states. “On darker skin the rash may be more difficult to see although its rough texture should be apparent.”
When to seek medical advice
“Parents should pay particular attention and if you or your child develops any of these symptoms you should contact your GP for assessment,” said the PHE spokesperson.
“Children diagnosed with scarlet fever are advised to stay at home until at least 24 hours after the start of antibiotic treatment to avoid spreading the infection to others.”
The NHS states: “Your GP should be able to diagnose scarlet fever by examining the distinctive rash and asking about other symptoms.
“They may also decide to take a sample of saliva from the back of the throat so it can be tested in a laboratory to confirm the diagnosis.”
If your child is infected, aim to keep them away from others as much as possible, including taking them out of school. Make sure they don’t share anything they have come into contact with, such as utensils, cups, towels and sheets - and wash these items thoroughly after use.
For more information, visit the NHS Choices website.