Sir Andre Geim, the scientist who discovered the "wonder material" graphene with a colleague, will be knighted by the Prince of Wales today.
The Nobel Prize-winning professor of physics from the University of Manchester receives the honour for services to science.
Graphene is the thinnest material known and the strongest ever measured. It also conducts electricity and heat better than any other material.
Potential applications include fold-away mobile phones, wallpaper-thin lighting panels, and the next generation of aircraft.
Former Aston Villa chairman Sir Doug Ellis will also be knighted during the Buckingham Palace investiture ceremony.
The self-made millionaire is being recognised for his charity work. He has invested heavily in hospitals and other charitable projects over the past three decades, with a particular emphasis on youth and sport.
Sir Jeremy Heywood, permanent secretary at No 10 and Cabinet Secretary, will be made a knight commander of the Order of the Bath.
The high-ranking civil servant is the most senior policy adviser to the Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister.