Argentina and Barcelona forward Messi has won the award for the world's best player in each of the last four years, while Portugal and Real Madrid forward Ronaldo won the award in 2008.
France forward Ribéry has had a sparkling year for treble-winners Bayern Munich.
Ronaldo is favourite for the prize following his stunning hat-trick against Sweden which secured Portugal's World Cup berth last month.
Ribéry is in contention for another prestigious award after being named Uefa's best player in Europe for the 2012-13 season, in which he helped Bayern Munich win the Champions League, Bundesliga and German Cup.
Messi has continued to be prolific since being awarded the 2012 prize, leading Barca to another La Liga title with 45 goals and Argentina to a place at Brazil 2014.
The winner will be revealed at the Ballon d'Or gala in Zurich on 13 January 13.