Members of Muirfield have voted against allowing women golfers to join the Open Championship venue.
It will remain a male-only club after failing to reach the two-thirds majority required to change the club's membership policy.
The club held a ballot of its 750 members which returned 616 votes, representing 95% of the membership.
Some 387 members, or 64%, voted in favour of admitting women and 219, or 36%, voted against.
Muirfield, owned and run by The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, has been reviewing its criteria for two years and the results of a postal ballot of the club's members was announced by captain Henry Fairweather.
The club in Gullane, East Lothian, last staged the Open in 2013.