Gareth Bale is the only Brit listed on Fifa's 23-man Ballon d'Or shortlist.
Bale, 24, became the world's most expensive player when he joined Real Madrid from Tottenham for £85.3 million in September after scoring 26 goals for Tottenham last season.
Barcelona and Argentina forward Messi has won the award the last four years, with Bale's Madrid team-mate Ronaldo consistently his nearest challenger.
Franck Ribéry, who was named Uefa's best player in Europe for the 2012-13 season after helping Bayern Munich win the Champions League, Bundesliga and German Cup, is another prominent name on the shortlist.
Ribéry is joined by club-mates Philipp Lahm, Thomas Müller, Manuel Neuer, Arjen Robben and Bastian Schweinsteiger, while Barcelona also have Xavi, Andrés Iniesta and summer signing Neymar among the candidates.
Paris St-Germain trio Zlatan Ibrahimović, Edinson Cavani and Thiago Silva have made the shortlist, while fellow Ligue 1 big-spenders Monaco have a contender of their own in Radamel Falcao, acquired from Atletico Madrid in the close season.
Five Premier League players - Manchester United striker Robin van Persie, Manchester City's Yaya Touré, controversial Liverpool frontman Luis Suárez, Chelsea winger Eden Hazard and Arsenal's recent addition Mesut Özil - have made the cut.
Former United manager Sir Alex Ferguson, who retired at the end of last season, headlines a 10-man coach of the year shortlist along with Jupp heynckes, José Mourinho, Carlo Ancelotti, Jürgen Klopp, and Spain boss Vicente del Bosque.
COACH OF THE YEAR SHORTLIST
Carlo Ancelotti (Real Madrid/ex-Paris St-Germain), Rafael Benítez (Napoli/ex-Chelsea), Antonio Conte (Juventus), Vicente Del Bosque (Spain), Sir Alex Ferguson (ex-Manchester United), Jupp Heynckes (ex-Bayern Munich), Jürgen Klopp (Borussia Dortmund), José Mourinho (Chelsea/ex-Real Madrid), Luiz Felipe Scolari (Brazil), Arsène Wenger (Arsenal).