The Hollywood actress and her French actor husband, who have a two-year-old son together, said they wished each other ‘nothing but happiness’ in a statement.
"It is with a heavy heart that we have come to the decision to divorce," the actors said in the statement.
"We move forward with love and respect for one another and the shared focus of what is best for our son.
"We wish each other nothing but happiness in life and we hope that you respect our and, most importantly, our children's privacy as we go through this difficult period."
According to TMZ, Halle cited irreconcilable differences in divorce papers.
A source close to the couple told the US website: "They have a personality difference."
The couple, both 49, married in July 2013 in a private ceremony in France.
Two months earlier, the Oscar-winning actress announced she was expecting a baby with Olivier. Their son, Maceo, was born later the same year.
The ‘Monster’s Ball’ actress has been married twice before, having previously wed baseball player David Justice and singer Eric Benet.
It was Olivier’s first marriage, having previously dated Kylie Minogue.
Earlier this year, an airport employee alleged that the actor used a car seat to shove him out of his way as he walked through LAX airport with Halle.
Olivier was also involved in a fist fight with Halle’s ex, Canadian model Gabriel Aubry, during her bitter custody battle over their 7-year-old daughter Nahla.