Charlie Hebdo, the French newspaper where 12 people were killed in an attack on Wednesday, has long poked fun at popes and presidents, as well as the Prophet Muhammad.
The magazine's offices were firebombed in November 2011 after it published a spoof issue that "invited" Muhammad to be its guest editor and put his caricature on the cover.
A year later, the magazine published more Muhammad drawings amid an uproar over an anti-Muslim film.
The cartoons depicted Muhammad naked and in demeaning or pornographic poses. As outraged grew, the French government defended free speech even as it rebuked Charlie Hebdo for fanning tensions.
The small-circulation weekly leans toward the left and takes pride in making acerbic commentary on world affairs through cartoons and spoof reports.
"We treat the news like journalists. Some use cameras, some use computers. For us, it's a paper and pencil," the Muhammad cartoonist, who goes by the name Luz, told The Associated Press in 2012.
"A pencil is not a weapon. It's just a means of expression."
Editor Stephane Charbonnier, among the 10 journalists killed on Wednesday, also defended the Muhammad cartoons speaking to The AP in 2012.
"Muhammad isn't sacred to me," said Charbonnier, who used the pen name Charb.
"I don't blame Muslims for not laughing at our drawings. I live under French law. I don't live under Quranic law."
Islam is not alone in being singled out by Charlie Hebdo's satire.
The magazine occasionally publishes investigative journalism, taking aim at France's high and mighty.
Charlie Hebdo has come under pressure ever since its 2011 Muhammad issue.
Its website has been hacked. It faced a lawsuit over the prophet cartoons. Riot police once guarded its offices. Charb lived under police protection — and his body guard was killed on Wednesday along with another officer.
Charb told Le Monde newspaper two years ago: "I'd rather die standing than live on my knees."
One of his last cartoons, published in this week's issue, seemed an eerie premonition.
"Still no attacks in France," an extremist fighter says.
"Wait — we have until the end of January to present our New Year's wishes."