The chart above shows the the origin countries of the 19,196 people who claimed asylum in the UK from January to July of 2015.
Eritrea - 2,034 (10.5%)
A 2015 UN report on Eritrea found widespread evidence of human rights violations in the country committed "under the authority of the government". Some of these could amount to crimes against humanity. Individuals are "routinely arbitrarily arrested
and detained, tortured, disappeared or extrajudicially executed".
Forty percent of children from five conflict-scarred Middle Eastern countries are not in school, the U.N. child welfare agency said in a report Thursday, Sept. 3, 2015, warning of a lost generation and a dim future for the region. UNICEF said 13.7 million out of 34 million school age children in Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya and Sudan are not getting an education, almost double the number five years ago.
Pakistan - 1,700 (9%)
Pakistan continues to face frequent gun and bomb attacks that have claimed the lives of tens of thousands of people over the last decade as Taliban and Al-Qaeda linked groups hiding in the tribal areas bordering Afghanistan battle government and international forces.
Just today (14 Oct) a bomb blast targeting a ruling party lawmaker killed seven people in the centre of the country.
More generally, Pakistanis face extrajudicial and targeted killings, disappearances, and a general lack of rule of law compounded by widespread corruption within the government and armed forces.
Iran - 1,353 (7%)
Women, ethnic and religious minorities, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons all face persecution in the majority Shia Muslim theocratic republic. The US State Department lists other human rights concerns including disappearances; cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, including judicially sanctioned amputation and flogging.
Syria - 1,314 (7%)
Since the start of Syria's brutal civil war in 2012, up to 330,000 civilians have been killed and millions more displaced and forced to flee their homes.
There is endemic discrimination against women and girls. After seizing the northern Afghan city of Kunduz last month, Taliban fighters went door-to-door hunting for women's rights advocates and journalists.
Afghanistan has the twelfth highest infant mortality rate (70 to every 1,000 live births) in the world, some three million drug users, and a literacy rate of 38.2%.
Nigeria is facing a sustained insurgency in the northeast of the country from the Islamist group Boko Haram. A recent report from Amnesty International states 1600 people have been killed by the group since June alone. Just today (14 Oct) seven people were killed in a triple bombing. 100,000 people have fled the country.