Clashes erupted on Sunday across much of Egypt between security forces and supporters of the ousted president, leaving 44 killed, as rival crowds of supporters of the military and backers of the Islamist Mohammed Morsi it deposed poured into streets around the country to mark 40 years since the 1973 Arab-Israeli war.
The capital, Cairo, saw multiple scenes of mayhem as street battles raged for hours in some neighbourhoods, with Morsi supporters throwing firebombs at police who responded with gunshots and tear gas.
In some cases, pro-military crowds set upon supporters of the former president, with the two sides pelting each other with rocks. By late evening, several parts of the city resembled combat zones, with fires burning, black smoke rising and the crack of gunfire piercing the air, thick with tear gas.
An Associated Press photographer saw nine bodies lying on the floor of a clinic in the Cairo district of Dokki, scene of some of the heaviest clashes. Most of the bodies had gunshot wounds to the head or chest.
The Health Ministry reported 40 people killed in Cairo and four others killed in provinces south of cairo, with more than 240 people injured. The Interior Ministry, which is in charge of the police, said 423 Morsi supporters were detained across the nation.
The clashes took place on the 40th anniversary of the start of the 1973 Mideast war with Israel, a holiday the military-backed government had wanted to use to pay tribute to the armed forces, whose chief ousted Morsi in a popularly supported coup on July 3.
The clashes were the latest chapter in the turmoil roiling the country since the removal in February 2011 of long-time ruler Hosni Mubarak and are certain to set back efforts by the government to revive the economy, especially the vital tourism sector, and bring order to the streets of Cairo, where crime and lawlessness have been rife.
The scene of the fighting contrasted sharply with a carnival-like mood in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, where thousands of supporters of the military waved Egyptian flags, blew whistles and touted posters of army chief Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi. Adding to the festivities, a military band in green jackets and off-white pants played, and men spun in whirling dervish-style dances.
Earlier in the day, soldiers had barricaded entrances to central Tahrir Square with barbed wire and armored personnel vehicles. Metal detectors were installed at the entrances and demonstrators pouring into the square were searched by troops.
Late on Sunday, el-Sissi and interim President Adly Mansour attended a fireworks extravaganza at a military-owned stadium in the eastern part of Cairo.
El-Sissi's predecessor, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, was among those attending the ceremony, making his first public appearance since Morsi removed him and his chief of staff, Sami Anan, in August last year. Tantawi served Hosni Mubarak as defense minister for 20 years and took over the reins of the country when his mentor was ousted in a 2011 uprising.
Read more on recent Egypt protests.