Professors from Harvard University used data from 24 countries to conduct the study, finding that although mothers believe working isn't the best for children, it actually helps all children "thrive", and daughters benefit most.
Kathleen McGinn, lead author of the study, and Harvard Business School Professor, said that the positive effects on daughters was more prominent in the UK and US.
She wrote on the report: “We hope the findings from our research will promote respect for the spectrum of choices women and men make at home and at work.
In the study, researchers found that, on average, the daughters of working mothers were paid 4% more than their peers, and they were more likely to be promoted into senior positions.
One in three daughters of working mothers were in manager positions, compared with only one in four from non-working mothers.
However, where attitudes to career equality change in European countries such as Finland and Denmark, the effect on daughters was not as high.
But it wasn't just daughters who benefited from their working mothers.
Sons were found to take a greater share of parenting and other household care roles when they were older.
They authors reported: “Our analyses find that sons raised by an employed mother are more involved at home as adults, spending more time caring for family members than men whose mothers stayed home full-time.
“Daughters raised by an employed mother spend less time on housework than women whose mothers stayed home full-time, but maternal employment has no effect on adult daughters’ involvement in caring for family members."
The authors suggested that policies should help mothers into work, whether that is part-time or full-time, to help them get back in to work.
McGinn added: "Whether mums or dads stay at home or are employed, part-time or full-time, children benefit from exposure to role models offering a wide set of alternatives for leading rich and rewarding lives."
Blogging on HuffPost UK Parents, Yasmina Siadatan was keen to prove to women that going back to work was a positive choce for women, and not one you should feel bad about.
She wrote: "Remember to focus on the positive and embrace the enormous change in your life.
"New chapters bring new opportunities. And new opportunities will bring new and enhanced rewards. You can have it all!"