Boris Johnson’s leadership is on the brink, as members of his government resign following months of scandal.
The trigger for the resignations was the revelation the prime minister knew Chris Pincher, who resigned as deputy chief whip amid sexual harassment allegations, had been investigated for bad behaviour but promoted him anyway.
Here is a list of 52 MPs who have resigned from the government so far:
1. Rishi Sunak
Sunak’s resignation as chancellor caused the biggest shock. “The public rightly expect government to be conducted properly, competently and seriously,” he said in his resignation letter. “I believe these standards are worth fighting for and that is why I am resigning.”
2. Sajid Javid
Javid, who quit as health secretary, said the British people “expect integrity from their government” but voters now believed Johnson’s administration was neither competent nor “acting in the national interest”.
3. Simon Hart
The Welsh secretary became the third cabinet minister to quit the government just hours after telling the prime minister he should resign.
4. Brandon Lewis
The Northern Ireland Secretary announced on Thursday morning that he was resigning, tweeting: “A decent and responsible Government relies on honesty, integrity and mutual respect - it is a matter of profound personal regret that I must leave Government as I no longer believe those values are being upheld.”
5. Alex Chalk
Chalk, quitting as solicitor general, wrote that government posts mean accepting “the duty for difficult or even unpopular policy decisions where that serves the broader national interest”. But, he added, “it cannot extend to defending the indefensible”.
6. Kemi Badenoch, 7. Julia Lopez, 8. Neil O’Brien, 9. Lee Rowley and 10. Alex Burghart all resigned in one letter f”or the good of the party and the country”.
“It has become increasingly clear that a the government cannot function given the issues that have come to light and the way in which they have been handled,” they said
11. John Glen
The Treasury minister, quitting on Wednesday morning, said: “I can no longer reconcile my commitment to the role” with “the complete lack of confidence I have in your continuing leadership of our country”.
12. Will Quince
Quince resigned as an education minister on Wednesday morning, having previously toured TV studios to defend the prime minister. He said he had “no choice” but to resign after it turned out he had been given “inaccurate” information.
13. Robin Walker
Walker resigned as schools minister, shortly after Quince. “I cannot in good conscience continue to serve in your government,” he said in a tweeted resignation letter.
14. Mike Freer
The exports and equalities minister said Johnson was “creating an atmosphere of hostility” for LGBT+ people and he could “no longer defend” the government.
15. Victoria Atkins
Atkins resigned as a justice minister, telling Johnson “I can no longer pirouette around our fractured values” and “we can and must be better than this”.
16. Jo Churchill
`The Bury St Edmunds MP quit as a Defra minister, saying “recent events have shown that integrity, competence and judgment are all essential to the role of prime minister, while a jocular, self-serving approach is bound to have its limitations”.
17. Rachel Maclean
The safeguarding minister said her job had been improving the low rate of prosecutions for sexual offences, which would “not be possible” if Johnson remained in office.
18. Mims Davies
Davies, the employment minister, said: “I feel now the great work we are doing in my department and many others is utterly overshadowed by what has unfolded from the heart of the government in Downing Street.”
19. Stuart Andrew
Andrew resigned as a housing minister, saying “our party, particularly our members and more importantly our great country, deserve better”.
20. Ed Argar
The Charnwood MP quit as health minister, saying “a change is needed in order for our party to continue to deliver on our shared ambitions for our country”.
21. Helen Whately
The exchequer secretary to the Treasury said: “I have argued that you should continue as Prime Minister many times in recent months, but there are only so many times you can apologise and move on. That point has been reached.”
22. Damian Hinds
In a post on Twitter, the security minister said: “It has been a huge privilege and responsibility to serve as security minister. It shouldn’t take the resignation of dozens of colleagues, but for our country, and trust in our democracy, we must have a change of leadership.”
23. George Freeman
In a tweet, the science minister said: “Enough is enough. This can’t go on. The chaos in No10, the breakdown of Cabinet collective responsibility, the abandonment of the Ministerial code, the defence of impropriety & defiance of Parliament are all insults to the Conservatism I believe in and stand for.”
24. Guy Opperman
Opperman confirmed he has resigned from the government on Twitter.
His resignation letter said: “I backed you in January 2022 because I wanted to see a real change in approach in No.10. I have given you ample opportunity to show real change. Sadly, recent events have shown clearly that government simply cannot function with you in charge.”
25. Chris Philp
The technology minister said the “PM should step down given public and parliamentary confidence has clearly gone, and given the importance of integrity in public life”.
26. James Cartlidge
The courts’ minister said: “I have felt duty bound to remain in post because of the very challenging situation in the Crown Court. But it’s clearly impossible to continue.”
27. Duncan Baker
Baker, a housing minister, said: “The breakdown in trust from the last six months is abundantly clear. The latest situation to unfold regarding Chris Pincher only compounds those feelings, with many now recognising the situation is clearly unsustainable.”
28. Bim Afolami
Speaking to Talk TV, Bim Afolami announced live on air he was quitting as Conservative Party vice chairman: “I just don’t think the prime minister any longer has, not just my support, but he doesn’t have, I don’t think, the support of the party, or indeed the country any more.”
Parliamentary private secretaries
29. Jonathan Gullis
The private secretary to the Northern Ireland secretary, who was seen as extremely loyal, wrote that the party he had been a member of his “entire adult life” had “been more focused on dealing with out reputation damage rather than delivering for the people of this country and spreading opportunity for all”.
30. Saqib Bhatti
Bhatti, a PPS to the health secretary, quit his job with a statement that “recent events have undermined trust and standards in public life”.
31. Nicola Richards
Richards, a PPS at the department for transport, said she could not serve “under the current circumstances” where “the focus is skewed by poor judgement that I don’t wish to be associated with”.
32. Laura Trott
Trott, another PPS in the transport department, said: “Trust in politics is – and must always be – of the upmost importance, but sadly in recent months this has been lost.”
33. Virginia Crosbie
Virginia Crosbie, a PPS, at the Welsh Office, wrote that she was “forced to say the sheer number of allegations of impropriety and illegality” centred around Downing Street and Mr Johnson’s premiership made his position untenable.
33. Felicity Buchan
The PPS at the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, told Johnson: “You have lost the confidence of my constituents and me. The current situation is untenable.”
35. Mark Fletcher
Fletcher, who was present when Pincher was alleged to have groped two men, said Johnson had suggested the events were “the fault” of other MPs for “allowing him to drink so much”.
36. Claire Coutinho
Coutinho has resigned as a parliamentary private secretary to the Treasury.
“I firmly believe that what we need now, as we deal with the twin challenges of war in Europe and global inflation, is a laser-like grip on reforming our public services so that they work better for our constituents and focus on charting a path to prosperity through what is an increasingly challenging global outlook.
“I think the events of recent weeks and months are preventing us from doing that.”
37. Selaine Saxby
Saxby, a PPS, tweeted a photograph of her resignation letter, adding that “with much regret” she “can no longer continue” in her role as a parliamentary private secretary.
38. Craig Williams
Willilams resigned as PPS to the chancellor, saying it was “impossible” for Johnson to rebuild trust with voters.
39. David Johnston
Johnston quit as a ministerial aide in the Department for Education. “I cannot defend what has taken place these past few days – or indeed these past few months,” he said.
40. Ruth Edwards
Edwards quit as a PPS in a Scotland Office saying Johnson had “turned a blind eye to allegations of sexual assault”.
41. Sara Britcliffe
Britcliffe said the “self-inflicted crisis” under Johnson meant he had to resign.
42. Mark Logan
Logan quit as a PPS in the Northern Ireland Office, telling Johnson: “It is oftentimes sad when something ends. But we must face and respect the reality staring us in the face.”
43. Peter Gibson
Gibson quit as a PPS in the trade department saying marching in London Pride had been “humiliating” given the government’s decision to not include trans people in its ban on conversion therapy.
44. James Sunderland
Sunderland quit as a PPS in the environment department.
45. Jacob Young
Young resigned as a PPS in the department for levelling up, housing and communities.
46. James Daly
Daly quit as a PPS at the department for work & pensions.
47. Gareth Davies
Davies resigned as a PPS in the department of health and social care. “It has been a privilege to serve in the role and not a decision I have taken lightly,” he said.
48. Danny Kruger
Following the sacking of Michael Gove, the Devizes MP announced on Twitter that he was resigning as his PPS, saying: “As I told No 10 earlier today it should be the PM leaving office.”
49. David Duguid
Duguid resigned as a trade envoy. In a statement, he said: “In light of recent events, I believe the prime minister’s position is now untenable.
50. Theo Clarke
The trade envoy to Kenya said Johnson’s decision to promote Chris Pincher “whilst in full knowledge of his own wrongdoing” showed “a severe lack of judgement and care for your Parliamentary party”.
51. Andrew Murrison
The trade envoy to Morocco said he was quitting as a result of the “rolling chaos of the past six months”.
As well as ministers and PPS’ resigning from government, several backbench MPs have been demanding Johnson resign, including former housing secretary Robert Jenrick and the chair of the Commons education committee Robert Halfon.
52. David Mundell
Mundell, a former cabinet minister, quit as trade envoy for New Zealand.