If successful, a greater emphasis on entrepreneurship will also help address ex-prisoner unemployment and welfare dependency, as well as create further employment opportunities while generating tax revenues. Most importantly, however, it will give ex-prisoners the fresh start they desperately need and surely deserve.
It is surprising how much knowledge there is available about women in prison. Despite this, their minority status has led to a small chapter or paragraph in a policy manual. Research for women in prison provides accessible and helpful information which could be used to promote equality for women in prison.
If punishment must be justified, and it must, it should be done so on the basis that morality is being restored. It is morally right and beneficial to society that people cannot get away with wrongdoing. To ensure people do not want to do wrong, weight must be given to making sure the punishment is justified on the grounds that the offender benefits to. Since deterrence did not stop them committing a crime in the first place, what would? A more moral and liberal system of punishment, surely?
Unsurprisingly, we must look to Silicon Valley for the new, cutting-edge innovation. Or more precisely, to the hills overlooking the bay, which are home to San Quentin, California's oldest prison. To put San Quentin in a UK justice context, it would be a category A prison - it's home to 699 death row inmates.
Today's prison reform announcement from the Prime Minister comes at an important time for prisons, that have been facing increasing pressures for many years. As the departing Chief Inspector of Prisons, Nick Hardwick, put it - never before has drug use in prisons been such a significant threat to their security or to the chance of true rehabilitation for offenders.
We can't keep locking up 85,000 people today knowing that hardly any of them will manage to find work and that around 50% of them will be back in again within a year of release. There are currently too many people in prison, and we have a system that seems to keep bringing them back there time and time again--that has to stop. Prison reform means fewer prisons and better prisoners.
The existence of babies in prison can be traced to the earliest types of prison. There is evidence of a baby born in a prison in the 18th century in England and Wales. Across the world prisons included nurseries in the early 20th century, however over the past few years there has been a more punitive approach.
While there are many organisations, researchers and practitioners interested in issues relating to women in prison; there is a need for more in depth and strategic direction. While solitary confinement and isolation is often promoted by human rights organisations, the cases they use are examples that are not necessarily relevant for all women in prison.
Over half of the 50 prisoners interviewed for the study reported three or more mental health problems including anxiety, depression, anger, difficulty in concentration, insomnia, and an increased risk of self-harm. Almost half of the 49 officers interviewed said that they would benefit from more mental health training and that further training should be offered.