The English capital is the "supercharged motor" of the UK economy and major infrastructure projects - such as a new hub airport - and housing is needed to keep it "firing on all cylinders", the Mayor of London said.
London's population is set to soar to ten million by 2030 and government must allocate "stable and continuous" funding to development in the city to meet expansion demands.
In a blueprint billed as a "wake up call" for government, Johnson said London needs 400,000 new homes in the next ten years alone.
The 2020 Vision - The Greatest City on Earth; Ambitions for London report, sets out how the capital contributes 22% of UK national output, more than at any time in history.
Indicating he is ready to battle with government for cash, Johnson called the document a "route map and a manifesto for Westminster and Whitehall" that gives government a "clear idea" of how investment in London can drive the rest of the UK economy.
He said: "Post-Olympic London has an amazing story to tell of a city that is leading the UK out of recession as the best place to work, live, play, study, invest and do business, and my goal is to lengthen London's lead as the greatest city on earth.
"In the summer of 2012 this city put on a triumphant performance, showing us exactly what we can do if we focus and plan, and agree on the challenges facing our city, and today is my personal view of how we can work together to meet those challenges.
"To succeed we must recognise the test of our mettle that lies ahead, not least a million more people in the next decade and a vast shortage of homes in an uncompromising global economy.
"This shows us why the Government must invest in London's future for the good of the whole of the UK and exactly why we must continue to attract international investment. I want this vision to be one which sparks the imagination of every Londoner as well as business leaders and government officials. This is everyone's city and all of our futures."
The blueprint focuses a raft of transport reforms, including a "new four runway airport" and calls on the government to immediately rule out a third runway for London.
It plans for automated trains on three quarters of the Tube network by 2020, the expansion of Barclay's Cycle Hire, more commonly known as Boris bikes, and increasing the number of trains on key lines, such at the Victoria and Jubilee, to 40 an hour.
It sets out plans to start construction of Crossrail 2 in 2019 and investigate new road tunnels such as replacing the Hammersmith flyover.
Aides said the document was a "vision" and more detailed plans would be developed over the coming years.