13/02/2019 00:01 GMT

What You Need To Know About HPV – And What You're Getting Wrong

Women wrongly associate shame, fear and promiscuity with HPV.

Being told you have HPV is nothing to be ashamed of. In fact, having a smear test to detect the human papilloma virus could save your life.

But new research shows women wrongly associate shame, fear and promiscuity with HPV – and many are confused about what the virus actually is. 

The survey of more than 2,000 women by Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust found almost 40% said they would be worried about what people thought of them if they had HPV. In addition, more than 40% would think their partner had been unfaithful if they were diagnosed with HPV. 

The myths surrounding HPV are not only perpetuating stigma, but also causing a lot of women to unduly worry. Seven in 10 women said they would be scared to hear they had HPV, but in reality, the majority of us will have some form of HPV in our lifetime. So isn’t it about time we got clued up?

[Read More: Women are still missing smear tests – here’s why you should book yours]

Tom Werner via Getty Images

What Is HPV?

HPV is a virus that can affect any part of the human body. It primarily affects the genital organs, which is why it’s sometimes known as genital human papilloma virus (GHPV). HPV is passed on through intimate skin-to-skin contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex – and both men and women can get it. 

Only 15% of those surveyed realised HPV was commonplace, but eight out of 10 people will be infected with HPV during their lifetime. While most instances of HPV are symptomless, some people experience genital warts. 

There are hundreds of different types of HPV, and 13 strains of HPV are known to be linked to cancer. There are no reliable tests for HPV in men and it’s currently difficult to diagnose, according to the NHS. But in women, HPV is tested for as part of cervical screening, also known as a smear test. 

Which Cancers Are Linked To HPV? 

HPV is most commonly associated with cervical cancer, but in rarer instances it can cause mouth and throat cancer, anal cancer, some types of head and neck cancer, and cancer of the penis. 

According to Cancer Research UK, virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV, but not all women with HPV will get cervical cancer. 

Since 2008, girls aged 11-13 have been offered a vaccination in school against the two most common “high-risk” types of HPV, called HPV16 and HPV18, which are thought to cause seven in 10 instances of cervical cancer.

However, attending your smear test every three years is still important if you’ve had the vaccine, because you will not be protected against all strains of HPV and can therefore still develop cervical cancer. 

How Is HPV Treated? 

Although there’s no treatment for the HPV virus itself, treatments are available for its effects, such as lotions available for genital warts. Diagnosis is also useful because you can then be monitored more closely for signs of HPV developing into cervical cancer.

If HPV has developed into cervical cancer, treatment options may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or surgery to remove part or all of the womb in more advanced stages.  

However, the NHS advises that most HPV infections don’t cause any serious harm and are cleared by your immune system within two years.