The Scottish First Minister said that every time she is on camera, there will be a commentary on what her hair looked like and what she wore.
The 45-year-old compared the level of scrutiny she receives to that of former Labour leader, Miliband.
Sturgeon said: "I accept that Ed's image and how he looked became a big part of how people perceived him, but I still don't think it's quite the same.
"Literally every time I'm on camera, as well as there being commentary on what I've said, there'll be commentary on what my hair looked like, what I wear.
"Often it's written in the most hideous and quite cruel way. And yes men aren't immune to that, but even Ed Miliband I don't think experienced it quite that way. But I'm actually inured to it now."
Miliband was the subject of a number of unfortunate photo gaffs. Never again will the 45-year-old be able to eat a bacon sandwich without these unflattering images coming to mind.
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Sturgeon also told the magazine that she was "hypercritical" of herself - always trying to be better than everyone else.
Earlier this year, Sturgeon was named the most influential woman in Britain in the Woman's Hour 2015 Power List.
Last year, Sturgeon announced as Scottish First Minister that there would be an equal split of male and female members in her new senior ministerial team.
Yet the first female leader of the SNP says she struggles to recall a time that she was held back because she was a woman.
Since the SNP won 56 seats in the last General Election, Sturgeon and her MPs have not shied away from showing their strength in Parliament, openly condemning a number of David Cameron's policies.
The SNP's stance against the Prime Minister's plans to relax the Fox Hunting Bill - which was perceived by many as a sly attempt to legalise the blood sport through the back door - led to Cameron suspending the vote.
See the full shoot in the October issue of Vogue, on sale Thursday.